State-of-the-art membranes for hydrogen-bromine flow batteries: The mechanisms for proton and bromide-species transports
Yohanes Antonius Hugo1, Wiebrand Kout1, Kitty Nijmeijer2
1Elestor B.V., Arnhem 6812 AR, the Netherlands
2Membrane Science & Technology Group, Department of Chemical Engineering,
Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB, the Netherlands
In a hydrogen-bromine flow battery (FB), the membrane characteristics determine the intrinsic resistance and crossover rate of bromide species and water. The crossover issue (from the bromine side to the hydrogen side) affects the performance and lifetime of hydrogen-bromine FBs because the bromide species deactivate the platinum catalyst and the liquid floods the electrode, which makes it inaccessible for the hydrogen .
The hydrogen-bromine flow battery for a large scale integration of variable renewable electricity: State-of-the-art review
Y.A. Hugo, W. Kout, G. Dalessi
Elestor B.V., Utrechtseweg 310-H40, 6812 AR Arnhem, The Netherlands
This article presents a state-of-the-art review of the hydrogen-bromine battery technology. The review aims to elaborate on the following topics: (1) the hydrogen-bromine flow battery, (2) the current status of technical developments on short-term and long-term cycling, and (3) the future direction for technology development.